Journal «Angiology and Vascular Surgery» • 

2019 • VOLUME 25 • №4

Predictors of acute cerebral embolic lesions during carotid artery stenting

Tanashyan M.M.1, Medvedev R.B.1, Gemdzhian E.G.2, Skrylev S.I.1, Krotenkova M.V.1, Shchipakin V.L.1, Koshcheev A.Yu.1, Sinitsyn I.A.1

1) Research Centre of Neurology,
2) National Research Center for Hematology, Moscow, Russia

The authors carried out a prospective study aimed at revealing predictors of acute embolic lesions of cerebral vessels during angioplasty with stenting of the internal carotid artery.

The study enrolled a total of 54 patients who between May 2015 and December 2018 underwent carotid angioplasty with stenting performed at the Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery of the Research Centre of Neurology. The procedure of internal carotid artery stenting may be accompanied by intraoperative acute embolic lesions. In order to reveal intraoperative acute embolic lesions of cerebral vessels all patients before and 24 hours after the intervention were subjected to diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

Thirty-six patients received classical carotid stents (Xact and Acculink) and 18 patients received Casper stents. The patients of both groups were comparable by 24 characteristics studied, including the incidence of intraoperative acute cerebral embolic lesions (18/36 for the classical stents and 10/18 for the Casper stent), which made it possible to unite them into one group in order to increase the power of the study. All acute embolic lesions detected by the diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (prior to stenting and 24 hours thereafter) were clinically, asymptomatic with no perioperative stroke observed.

In order to reveal predictors of intraoperative acute embolic lesions of cerebral vessels we analysed 22 characteristics of the patients, with the obtained findings demonstrating the following signs: a low-intensity (below 20 dB) ultrasonographic signal reflected from fragments of an atherosclerotic plaque during ultrasound examination prior to stenting (p=0.001) – a sign strongly associated with acute embolic lesions (sensitivity – 75%, specificity – 92%); symptomatic stenosis according to the anamnestic data (p=0.02) – a sign significantly associated with acute embolic lesions; female gender (p=0.06) – a sign moderately associated with acute embolic lesions; a history previously endured (according to the anamnestic data) operations on coronary and/or carotid arteries (p=0.09) – a sign weakly associated with acute embolic lesions.

Based on the obtained findings we proposed a prognostic scale to assess the risk of acute embolic lesions of cerebral vessels during internal carotid artery stenting. Knowing the factors associated with intraoperative acute embolic lesions will allow the endovascular surgeon to single out the patients at increased risk of acute embolic lesions.

KEY WORDS: carotid artery, stenosis, stent, stenting, prognosis, Casper, acute embolic lesions, cerebral vessels, logistic regression.

P. 90

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