Journal «Angiology and Vascular Surgery» • 

2021 • VOLUME 27 • №4

Quo vadimus? Fundamental problems of developing hybrid prostheses of thoracic aorta

Zhuravleva I.Yu., LyashenkoM.M., Shadanov A.A., Sirota D.A., Chernyavskiy A.M.

Department of Aorta and Coronary Arteries Surgery, Laboratory of Bioprosthetics, National Medical Research Centre named after Academician E.N. Meshalkin, RF Ministry of Public Health, Novosibirsk, Russia

This article is a review briefly characterizing the state of the art of hybrid surgery of the thoracic aorta using the frozen elephant trunk technique worldwide and in Russia, also discussing unsolved problems of fundamental science, being key issues in creation of new models of hybrid prostheses of the thoracic aorta. The main attention is paid to the problem of radial stiffness of the stent-graft portion of the prosthesis. Performed is a detailed analysis of the factors influencing this characteristic of the sent graft: shape, size and number of cells of the stent element, thickness of the nitinol wire it is made of, method of edge connection, nitinol properties depending on the alloy grade and methods of thermoforming. It is shown that excessive stiffness leads to the development of d-SINE syndrome. This is followed by discussing the problem of optimal stiffness of stent grafts, based on the design of stent graft elements and elastic properties of the wall of the true channel of a dissecting aortic aneurysm. Also proposed is an approach to solving the problem of d-SINE, consisting in creation of conical stent grafts and/or a gradual decrease of radial stiffness of stent elements in the direction of the distal portion. Comprehensively addressed are disadvantages of the graft portion of the prosthesis, in 95% of items made of polyethylene terephthalate fiber: susceptibility to degradation associated with manufacturing defects and intraoperative microdamages, abrasive effect in the zone of contact with stent elements, partial postoperative hydrolysis and an inflammatory reaction to a foreign body, often being clinically pronounced. Also touched upon are certain aspects of creating hermetic coatings of the graft portion, with the use of vancomycin possessing low cytotoxicity as part of an antibacterial component being promising. As a whole, it is demonstrated that advances in creating a novel generation of hybrid prostheses should be associated with new approaches and materials, to be obtained at the junction of medicine and fundamental sciences.

KEY WORDS: hybrid prosthesis of the thoracic aorta, stent graft, radial stiffness of stent graft, d-SINE syndrome, textile vascular graft, hermetic coating.

Р. 112

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