Journal «Angiology and Vascular Surgery» • 

2018 • VOLUME 24 • №3

Ultrasonographic examination of major veins of lower limbs and pelvic veins in pregnant women

Yupatov E.Yu.1, Ignatyev I.M.2,3, Fomina E.E.2,3

1) Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology No1 of the Kazan State Medical Academy,
2) Interregional Clinical and Diagnostic Centre,
3) Department of Surgical Diseases No2 of the Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russia

The problem of chronic venous insufficiency in women during pregnancy is of current concern. A total of 115 pregnant women in the first, second and third trimesters of gestation were examined in a stage-wise manner. During the first stage we conducted a comprehensive clinical study with the obligatory consultation by the obstetrician-gynaecologist. At the second stage, all women were subjected to ultrasonographic examination of the venous system of both lower extremities and the small pelvis.

Studying the diameters of the deep veins of the right and left lower limbs, as well as the paired veins of the small pelvis demonstrated no statistically significant differences, which made it possible to evaluate these parameters as a whole. In all pregnant women, the lumen of the examined vessels was uniform, with the veins being patent, compliant, stained on colour Doppler mapping. Respiration-synchronized, phasic blood flow was registered.

In the course of the study it was revealed that the diameter of the veins of the lower limbs and small pelvis increased as gestation proceeded. The findings of ultrasonographic angioscanning showed that by the third trimester of pregnancy the diameter of the femoral vein was 1.5-fold larger and that of the popliteal vein was 1.4-fold larger. The diameter of the veins of the pampiniform plexus of the ovaries during gestation was noted to have increased 1.13-fold. This was accompanied and followed by deterioration of tonic-and-elastic properties of the venous wall and the development by the third trimester of valvular insufficiency with the emergence of venous congestion. Seventeen (16%) women were found to have varicose syndrome.

The above mentioned alterations of venous haemodynamics appeared to lead to impairment of blood flow in the affected veins and to the emergence of thrombogenic zones in the valvular sinuses. Of the 115 women examined, 77 (67%) were found to have degree 1 sludge and 36 (31.3%) had degree 2 sludge, with the D-dimer level in these women having increased to 773.3±37.5 ng/ml. Degree 3 sludge was observed in 2 (1.7%) women previously operated on for acute venous thrombosis. Their D-dimer level amounted to 954.3±43.2 ng/ml.

It was demonstrated that studying the valvular sinuses for detection of sludge during examination of pregnant women allowed obstetricians-gynaecologists and physicians of ultrasonographic diagnosis to form risk groups for the development of deep vein thrombosis and to timely take appropriate measures aimed at prevention of the pathology concerned.

KEY WORDS: pregnancy, varicose veins, venous insufficiency, veins of the small pelvis, sludge, elasticity index.

P. 76

« Back