Journal «Angiology and Vascular Surgery» • 

2020 • VOLUME 26 • №2

First Russian experience with endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta in a zone of combat operations

Reva V.A., Petrov A.N., Samokhvalov I.M.

Field Surgery Department, Military Medical Academy named after S.M. Kirov under the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta has increasingly been used all the world over for arresting ongoing intraabdominal and intrapelvic bleeding accompanied by unstable haemodynamics. However, the use of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta in a zone of military operations has been limited to sporadic cases only. This article deals with 3 clinical case reports regarding rendering medical care for the wounded presenting with extremely unstable haemodynamics and/or a terminal state in a field hospital, where insertion of a balloon into the aorta made it possible to stabilize the condition, to perform the basic scope of diagnosis, and to finally control the continuing bleeding: in one case – intraabdominal (due to splenic rupture) and in 2 cases – intrapelvic (unstable fractures of pelvic bones). In two cases, despite low readings of blood pressure, puncture of the femoral artery was performed «blindly» and in one case – in an open fashion. The balloons used were the 7 Fr Rescue Balloon (Japan) and 10 Fr balloons manufactured by the Limited Liability Company “Minimally Invasive Technologies” (Russia).

The balloons were positioned in the aorta also «blindly» and only in one case we managed to perform an X-ray examination confirming the correct position of the balloon. The mean time of occlusion of the thoracic aorta in the survivors amounted to 20 minutes. The operations were accompanied by intensive therapy and massive haemotransfusion. The introducers were removed using the fascia suture technique (without closure of the arterial wall). Two of the three wounded were saved, to be evacuated to a central hospital and discharged 170 and 75 days thereafter, which was due to long-term treatment of severe concomitant fractures of pelvic bones and lower extremities. No complications on the background of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta were revealed. Two years after surgery both men continue serving in the Armed Forces, with no significant functional impairments. Our third injured patient delivered in a condition of clinical death, despite restoration of the rhythm after inflation of the balloon unfortunately died.

Our case reports demonstrate high efficacy of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta in unstable haemodynamics induced by combat injury to the abdomen and pelvis. The technique of this method makes it possible not only to stabilize haemodynamics, to improve perfusion of the vital organs but also to staunch continuing haemorrhage, hence allowing additional time to carry out haemotransfusion. In future, resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta may become one of the methods of the extended protocol of prehospital care.

KEY WORDS: resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA), arterial catheterization, abdominal injury, pelvic injury, combat injury, aorta, bleeding, haemostasis, balloon catheter.

P. 68-75

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