Journal «Angiology and Vascular Surgery» • 

2018 • VOLUME 24 • №2

Results of endovascular treatment of obstructive lesions of veins of the iliofemoral segment

Pokrovsky A.V.1,2, Ignatyev I.M.3,4, Gradusov E.G.2

1) Institute of Surgery named after A.V. Vishnevsky under the RF Ministry of Public Health,
2) Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education under the RF Ministry of Public Health, Moscow,
3) Interregional Clinical Diagnostic Centre,
4) Kazan State Medical University of the RF Ministry of Public Health, Kazan, Russia

Objective. The purpose of the study was to assess the immediate and remote results of endovascular treatment of obstructive lesions of the veins of the iliofemoral segment.

Patients and methods. We performed balloon angioplasty and stenting for iliofemoral venous thrombosis in a total of 75 patients. Of these, 60 patients were subjected to stenting of post-thrombotic obstructions and 15 patients underwent stenting of non-thrombotic obstructive lesions of the iliac veins (for May-Thurner syndrome – in 11, for extravasal tumour-induced compression and cicatricial stenosis – in 4).

Stenting was performed using self-expanding stents Wallstent (Boston Scientific, n=84) or S.M.A.R.T. (Cordis, Johnson & Johnson, n=16). The stent diameter varied from 12 to 18 mm depending on the venous segment to be stented. The average number of the implanted stents amounted to 1.3 per patient. Efficacy of endovascular intervention was evaluated by measuring the pressure gradient and malleolar circumference. The clinical result was determined by the Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS).

Results. Technical success of endovascular intervention amounted to 92%. Stent thrombosis in the immediate postoperative period occurred in 7 (9.3%) patients. Of these, three patients were subjected to catheter-directed thrombolysis with restoration of patency of the stented venous segment of the limb. Stent occlusion within 48 postoperative months was diagnosed in 4 cases. Two patients underwent successful repeat angioplasty and stenting. Stent restenosis of not less than 50% at 36 months of follow up was observed in 5 (16%) patients. Repeat stenting was performed in 1 case. Dynamic control of stent patency was carried out by means of ultrasonographic duplex scanning. Also performed were control multispiral computed tomography-phlebography and roentgen contrast-enhanced phlebography. Cumulative primary and secondary patency at 60 months in post-thrombotic lesions amounted to 72 and 81%, respectively, in non-thrombotic lesions to 85% (primary patency). The VCSS values demonstrated a significant decrease in manifestations of chronic venous insufficiency. The mean value of the composite parameter decreased from 14.2±4.2 to 7.5±2.6 (p<0.001), the malleolar circumference decreased from 272.3±6.7 to 250.6±6.1 mm (p<0.01). Permanent healing of trophic ulcers was noted in 5 (71%) patients.

Conclusion. The method of endovascular angioplasty and stenting for obstructive lesions of the veins of the iliofemoral segment is a minimally invasive, safe, and highly effective therapeutic modality, which is confirmed by significant improvement of the limb’s condition and good remote results of patency of the venous segments restored. Endovascular methods should be wider implemented into the clinical practice.

KEY WORDS: obstructive lesions of iliac veins, balloon angioplasty and stenting, duplex scanning, magnetic resonance and computer-assisted phlebography, roentgen contrast-enhanced phlebography.

P. 63-68

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